LOW POWER ENERGY HARVESTING AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DESIGNS
Investigating Team: Dr. Sukesha Sharma, Dr. YP Verma, Dr. Preeti, Oshin Garg, Pooja,
- Energy harvesting using IR LED array
IR (Infrared) led array generates power when subjected to concentrated light. This behavior is based on the principle of reverse electroluminescence effect of semiconductor element. Electroluminescence is the phenomenon in which a material emits light in response to the passage of an electric current or strong electric field. Reverse of this phenomenon is the principle used in the proposed work.
It has been observed that the output voltage depends upon the number of IR LEDs and the distance IR LED array from the light source. The voltage has been recorded by varying each parameter. It has been observed that two star shaped arrangements connected together serially give maximum output voltage. It has been observed that output voltage is directly proportional to the number of IR LEDs, inversely proportional to distance of IR LED array from the light source.
Experimental setup of proposed work
- Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System Using Cantilever
Piezoelectric energy harvester consists of two cantilevers on which piezoelectric patches were bonded on both the sides and electrically connected in series. A cantilever beam type of structure with 3-1 loading mode has been chosen because of its simple structure.
Experimental setup of piezoelectric energy harvester
- Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System Using Rotatory Motion of Fan
Energy harvesting system using fan works on the principle of piezoelectricity, which says if a mechanical force is applied on piezoelectric material, it will generate potential difference. In the proposed work, rotational motion of fan disc is converted into the translatory motion using a mechanism. Rod attached to the fan disc will hit the piezo disc as fan rotates. The crest-trough pattern designed over fan disc is responsible for translatory motion of rod. Output voltage obtained is AC in nature, so for storage purpose it needs to be converted into DC which requires a rectifier circuit. The proposed design generated a maximum output voltage of 9.2V and a maximum current of 107uA .
- HOME AUTOMATION USING SMART SWITCH
Investigating Team: Dr.Y.P. Verma, Dr. Mukesh Kumar Mohit Chaudhary ,AashishParmar
SmartSwitch is a home automation system which uses the general purpose microcontroller
It can control the electrical appliances of low and high power requirements through a computer or smartphone application. These appliances can be controlled through a local home network and internet from anywhere across the globe. Both these options can be both wired and wireless depending on the type of network the user hasd. It also has an ability to save the state of which device was last on or off and resume from that state in case of any power failure.
- URJA RATH (Solar E-Rickshaw)
Investigating Team: Dr. YP Verma Radhika Gupta , Sumansh Vashishth , Siddharth Rawat
While researching about the various initiatives and projects by government as well as private sector in the domain of solar powered vehicles for our project we came across new delhi based Urjaglobals initiative of a solar powered vehicle the UrjaRath. The initiative being quite similar to our problem statement was looked into. But because of certain problems the initiative of urja global could not be completed. So to continue in that field we chose to keep the name urjarath which signifies the incomplete attempt of the firm.
The Indian scenario has for long been associated with cycle rickshaws. But these are slow as a mode of transport, require too much effort form the rickshaw puller and are also not an efficient solution. Therefore, the e rickshaws were introduced which provided speed at a better cost and were also easy on the part of the rickshaw pullers. But the e rickshaws are still a costly option at Rs 1.25 lakh for the poor rickshaw puller. So the need of the hour was another solution which overcomes all these problems. Also with the increasing global energy crisis and environment issues for saving electricity an energy friendly alternative was thought of and thus the UrjaRath which is a solar powered budget friendly alternative took it’s shape
Basic Circuit Diagram
- GPS TRANSMITTER USING PIEZOELECTRICITY
Investigating Team: Dr.Y.P.Verma, Vinayak Agarwal
Energy harvesting utilizes naturally occurring sources of energy and converts them into forms that can be utilized in the normal ways. It finds its application in wearable electronics, where energy harvesting devices can power or recharge cell phones, mobile computers, radio communication equipment, etc. Energy is scavenged from the walking process using piezoelectric stacks and to use this to transmit a GPS signal and to determine the location of the person.
Sufficient amount of power is produced to transmit a RF signal. A high voltage and low current signal is produced using piezoelectric material which when regulated can be used for various low energy applications.
Prototype Experimental setup
5. WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM for (PGIMER)
Investigating Team: Dr.Y.P. Verma, Vinayak Agarwal, Shivani
A timer based water controlling system was designed to overcome the water wastage problem using real time clock (RTC) and Arduino as the controller. Further a relay module and voltage regulators are used to operate solenoid valve (actuating mechanism).
A cost effective and simple solution to the problem posed by PGI’s officials. First of All the controller was decided for the purpose. Appropriate hardware was designed and selected based on its availability and simplicity. The codes were burned in the controller which is specific to its operation.
A digital control system can be provided and an intelligent monitoring system can be created which will deliver precise monitoring and creates usage and consumption statistics that help to optimize settings.
6.VIRTUAL STROBOSCOPE/ RPM MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL
Investigating Team: Dr Y P Verma, Navdeep Singh Chaudhary,Kumari Jaya
The project aims at measuring rpm of rotating machines in real-time and varying its average rpm, α, ω, ϴ as per requirement.
Initially, the real-time data corresponding to current rpm will be acquired. Average rpm, α, ω, ϴ will then be calculated and computed with the help of received data. Above mentioned parameters will also be displayed graphically for better visualisation. The user is then allowed to change the parameters wirelessly or through remote.
Project 7: Microgrid Test Bed Setup at UIET for Integration of Renewable Energy Sources and their Quality Analysis
Introduction:With an aim to develop an energy hub at UIET under the theme of Energy Harvesting and Management Technologies, DIC, a project sponsored by MHRD, Govt. of India, an ambitious research work is initiated to setup a Microgrid at the institute. Under this research work, a Microgrid test-bed setup is to be installed in order to integrate the pre-existing rooftop solar PV modules with the grid and other proposed renewable energy sources like small wind turbines, through energy management equipments like Grid Simulator, Bidirectional Inverter, and Wind Turbine Emulator etc. Also, analysis is being done on a 7 level cascaded H-bridge inverter to implement it in taking use of generated power from as well as grid to run local loads.
Fig. 1.1 Grid Simulator and Bidirectional Inverter
Fig.1.2 Multilevel Inverter
Fig. 1.3 YOKOGAWA Digital Storage Oscilloscopes
Works done till now:
- Demonstrative experimentation of 48V battery charging through Grid Simulator and Bidirectional inverter. (in-built firing of Grid simulator).
- Measurement of speed of 1HP induction motor fed by 7-level CHB inverter and its variation with supply voltage, using the built-in FPGA program.
Project 8: 3D Design of 1kW Hybrid Savonius and Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbines
Introduction:Wind turbines serve as a means to convert the kinetic energy of wind into power. This process begins when wind contacts the turbine blades and transfers some of its kinetic energy to them, forcing them to rotate. Since the blades are connected to the main shaft through the rotor, the shaft rotates as well, creating mechanical energy. Vertical axis wind turbines operate on the same principle of converting rotational movement due to wind into shaft work, which is then converted into electricity through the use of a generator. However, VAWTs have a number of advantages including omni-directionality, reduced noise, and easy maintenance. There are two primary blade designs that are used for VAWTs that operate on different principles: the Savonius type and the Darrieus type.
Design Procedure of Hybrid Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: The goal of this project is to design a hybrid vertical axis wind turbines (HVAWTs) that could generate power relatively at different ratio of wind velocities. To accomplish this goal, the objectives are:
- 3D structural model of the Hybrid Savonius and Darrieus turbines.
- Fluidic structural analysis to calculate structural loading based on input wind speed.
- FEM analysis of 3D structure under different loading condition.
Work Done till now:
- Design of hybrid vertical axis wind turbine has been completed using CAD software SolidWorks 2014 and its technical specifications.
- Fluidic structural analysis and FEM analysis of 3D structure has been completed using CFD software ANSYS18.1.
- Fabrication of wind turbine is in process.
The design layout of Hybrid Vertical Axis Wind Turbines is as follows:
Fig. 2.1. Figure showing the layout of Savonius and Darrieus Wind Turbines
Project 9:Development of IoT based Switch to replace existing Modular Switches
The project aimed at design and development of modular electronic switch that is one is to one replacement of conventional modular switches that can be controlled by Bluetooth, Infrared Sensor, Wi-Fi or any other communication media. The final product will be in the form of an extension board consisting of 4 General Switches and 1 Controller Switch.
Fig 3.1 IoT based General Switch
Fig 3.2 An Extension Board having 4 IoT based Switches
Work done till now:
- Design and fabrication of IoT based switch and controller switch has been completed.
- Theletter of Intent has been obtained from an industrial partner to develop it in the form of a fully marketable Product.
- Improvement of Mechanical design by molding is to be done.
- Validation and Qualification as per BIS standard is to be done.
Project 10:Electronic Preferential Voting Machine (EPVM)
In case of election in which more than one candidate is to be elected and Preferential Voting System is used and counting is based on Single Transferable Vote method, the existing EVMs cannot be used. In such election, manual voting (on paper ballot) is done and manual counting is performed to obtain the results.
A voter has to vote as per order of his preferences in favour of candidates of his choice. For example, consider that there are five seats for which ten candidates are contesting. The voter has to give up to five preferences (that is, maximum number of seats) out of ten contesting candidates.
Preferential Voting has an edge of singular voting in the fact that it also takes into consideration the second priority of each voter. For example, in a normal election, if a person wins with 50% votes, the fact that there are other 50% of the voters who do not want that candidate to win, and they do not get a chance to voice their opinion through a single vote. Preferential voting solves this issue.
This method of voting is used for the election of President of India, Vice-president of India, Rajya Sabha MPs, etc. and also for Panjab university senate elections.
Aim: The task was to design the hardware of the machine, and the counting software would be further designed.
Layout of Machine:
The EPVM has been designed to consist of three basic units:
- Control Unit,
- Ballot Unit
- Counting unit.
For every voting centre, one Control Unit and one or more Ballot Units would be required, where these are individually connected to the Control Unit. Counting unit is only one and remains in the centre where counting takes place. All the units have their own controllers and the Control Unit and Ballot unit work in a basic Master-Salve protocol.
Fig. 4.1. Working Control Unit
Fig. 4.2. Control Unit in Poll Active Mode
Fig. 4.3. Polling active mode with ballot units active.
Work done till now :
- Prototype of the EPVM is designed and fabricated and working successfully.
- The software for counting of the votes has been developed and being modified for advanced version.
- The prototype is being modified to provide the appropriate switches and indicators so as to give good aesthetic look.
- The prototype is being compared with the benchmarking and is being modified for new version.
- The software for counting is also being upgraded.
Project 11: Tyre Pressure Monitoring System
Introduction:The Project aimed at developing a tyre air pressure monitoring system which will be a Dust cap sensor for any standard valve which allows monitoring the tyre pressure and displaying it to the desired screen. The unsafe pressure will be alarmed to refill or get it checked as It will prevent in many things like low fuel efficiency, high tyre wear & tear, on road accidentsand flat tyres. The Prototype of the project is under construction.
Technical Specifications:The proposed technology consists of an electronic kit which contains the operational algorithm and required mechanism for the measurement of tyre pressure using various mechanical components and electronic devices and further sending information to a mobile application via Bluetooth.
Fig. 5.1 TPMS Casing Fig. 5.2 TPMS Circuitry with its dedicated electronics
Fig. 5.3 Miniaturized Electronic circuit
Work done till now:
- The Electronics of the TPMS are ready & working as required, along with transmission of signal from sensor to console.
- Along with that work on casing & calibration of TPMS is in progress.
- One initial prototype is ready and work on second iteration is going on.
Project 12: Design of an Autonomous All Terrain Robot-Spider Botfor Surveillance/Military Purpose
Introduction:Robots are increasingly popular in defence application all over the world. This project aims at designing a six-legged walking robot capable of traversing rough terrain that is difficult to negotiate using wheeled vehicles. The body of the robot is similar to a spider. There are six legs and two extra gripers mounted over the spider bot to extend its capabilities. Each leg is driven by a linkage gear mechanism, which allows them to make a vertical movement individually thereby realizing easy control of the leg height. The design incorporates servo motor system to get the horizontal movement of the legs thus giving the bot three degree of freedom at each leg. Such a design allows the bot to travel over any type of rough, rocky, inclined, steep ground. Sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetic field sensor help the bot to stabilize itself over the rough path.
Fig. 6.1 Spider Bot Prototype
Work done till now:
- Various parameters of the Spider Bot like torque and DOF has been calculated.
- Selection of required actuators (servo motors) and sensors like accelerometer sensor, magnetometer sensor, gyroscope sensor, temperature sensor, tilt sensor has been calculated.
- Data Acquisition from all the above sensors, formation of Data Matrix of acquired data,Control Matrix for servomotors has been done successfully.
- The prototype is ready in a compact form.
Project 13: Humidifier Setup for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Device for Artificial Breathing
Introduction:Artificial breathing is any means of assisting or stimulating respiration, a metabolic process referring to the overall exchange of gases in the body. It may take the form of artificially providing regulated air for a person who is not breathing or is not making sufficient respiratory effort on their own.It is achieved through manual insufflations of the lungs by mechanically assisting or replacing spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine and the breathing may be assisted by a registered physician.There are two main modes of mechanical ventilation within the two divisions: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs.
Design Procedure: Humidification system contains a sealed water container, tube entries, a heating element, and temperature sensor. A humidifier could heat and vaporize the water, which increases the temperature and humidity of delivered gas. The heat-wire and temperature sensor stabilize the temperature under ideal conditions at 37ºCelsius (human body temperature), also preventing condensation inside the circuit.
Fig. 7.1 Final PCB Fig. 7.2 Final form of system
- Arduino receives input from the rectifier circuit and is connected with: relay, sensor and LCD. The working output of Arduino is 5V which is distributed to signal the components.
- Arduino is programmed by a loop that felicitates the relay to switch off the heater when temperature goes beyond 37ºC. The coding also includes the functioning of LCD, sensor and buzzers.
- Two buzzers- a piezoelectric buzzer and a 3-pin buzzer, that beep when arduino or heater fail, to ensure safety.
- The temperature sensor works with a digital output and a great working range sensing up to -50ºC temperature and accuracy of 0.5ºC.
- Proteus software is used to sketch the PCB configuration of the model, where final setting of components is to be done.
Project 14: Water Control and Monitoring System
Introduction:The aim is to control and monitor the water consumption and enable significant water savings with Water management system. In order to do so, a timer based water controlling system was designed using real time clock (RTC) and Arduino as the controller. Further, a relay module and voltage regulators are used to operate solenoid valve (actuating mechanism).A cost effective and simple solution to the problem was proposed.
Fig 8.1 Block Diagram of the System
Design Procedure: The controller was decided for the purpose. Appropriate hardware was designed and selected based on its availability and simplicity. The codes were burned in the controller which is specific to its operation. A digital control system can be provided and an intelligent monitoring system can be created which will deliver precise monitoring and creates usage and consumption statistics that help to optimize settings.
Work done till now:The hardware has been tested and the prototype has been developed. The design is to be made more compact to increase its accessibility. Also, testing to check its reliability has to be done.